Old Testament prophecies regarding kingdoms are fascinating.  We shall consider several of these.  These are by no means all the prophecies regarding kingdoms in the Old Testament, but these are given to show that there are at times hundreds of years between the time the prophet utters the prophecy until it is fulfilled.  Amos is definitely the oldest prophet who prophesied regarding many nations.  The years indicated for the prophets are those years, most likely, that they were prophesying.

SCRIPTURE PROPHECY FULFILLMENT
AMOS, c. 755 BC    
Amos 1:3-5 Against Damascus Tiglath-pileser III (Assyria) in 732 BC1
Amos 1:6-8 Against Philistia Sargon (Assyria) 720 BC [Ashdod 711 BC (Isa 20:1)]2; Sennacherib (Assyria) 701 BC3; Alexander the Great (Greece) [Gath 332 BC].4
Amos 1:9-10 Against Tyre Alexander the Great 332 BC5
Amos 1:11-12 Against Edom Tiglath-pileser III 736 BC; Nabataeans 300 BC; Romans 70 AD.6
Amos 1:13-15 Against Ammon Tiglath-pileser III 736 BC; Sennacherib 701 BC; Judas Maccabees c. 165 BC; see Jer 49:1-6, where Ammon will be disciplined, but their fortunes restored.7
Amos 2:1-3 Against Moab "At a later date Moab was overrun by the Nabathean Arabs who ruled in Petra and extended their authority on the east side of Jordan even as far as Damascus (Josephus, Ant., XIII, xv, 1, 2). The Moabites lost their identity as a nation and were afterward confounded with the Arabs, as we see in the statement of Josephus (XIII, xiii, 5), where he says that Alexander (Janneus) overcame the Arabians, such as the Moabites and the Gileadites."8
Amos 2:4-5 Against Judah Judah surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar (Babylon) in 597 BC; in 586 BC Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem; Jerusalem was utterly destroyed again by Titus (Roman) in 70 AD.9
Amos 2:6-16 Against Israel Samaria taken by Sargon (Assyria) in 722 BC.10
ISAIAH 740-700 BC    
Isa 13:17; 21:2 Babylon would be conquered by the Medes Babylon was destroyed by the Medes, 539 BC11
Isa 44:28-45:13 Cyrus to free the Jews Fulfilled 538 BC, Ezra 1:1-4; 6:1-5
JEREMIAH 627-586 BC    
Jer 21:3f Babylon will conquer Jerusalem Imminent threat, but the people would not believe Jeremiah.  It is fulfilled in Jeremiah 39:1f in 586 BC.
Jer 25:1-14 Babylonian captivity will last 70 years Recognized by Daniel (9:2) as being written by Jeremiah and the time had been fulfilled as God had spoken it.
Jer 46 Nebuchadnezzar will conquer Egypt Nebuchadnezzar conquered Pharaoh-Necoh at Carchemish on the Euphrates in 605 BC.12
Jer 47 Judgment against Philistia Alexander the Great (Greece) [Gath 332 BC].4
Jer 48 Judgment against Moab See Amos 2:1-3.
Jer 49:1-22 Judgment against Ammon Judas Maccabees c. 165 BC; see Jer 49:1-6, where Ammon will be disciplined, but their fortunes restored.7
Jer 49:23-27 Judgment against Damascus Damascus was displaced in importance when taken over by the Seleucids in 301 BC.  It was conquered by the Arabs in 634 AD, and has remained an Islamic city since then.13
Jer 49:28-33 Judgments against Kedar and Hazor People of the "east," probably conquered by Nebuchadnezzar.
Jer 49:34-39 Judgment against Elam Elam is to be destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and then restored.
Jer 51-52 Judgment against Babylon See Isa 13:17
Jer 51:11f, 28f The Medes will conquer Babylon Babylon was destroyed by the Medes, 539 BC11
DANIEL 605-529 BC   Daniel identified 5 kingdoms, one which was in existence when Daniel received the vision in chapter two, and four more to come.
Dan 2:38 Babylon the first Empire Present at the time of the prophecy.
Dan 2:39; 5:28-31; 6:8 Medo-Persia the second Empire Babylon was conquered by the Medes, 539 BC11
Dan 2:29; 8:20-21 Greece the third Empire The Medes were conquered by Alexander the Great at the battle of Issus in 333 BC.
Dan 2:40-43; 7:17-27 Rome the fourth Empire Rome's defeat of Greece started with winning the battle at Thermopylae in 191 BC.  Strife continued and Greece was ruined by Rome over the next 150 years.  Finally Augustus directly annexed Greece in 27 BC, and this allowed for peace and a recovery of the Grecian cities.
Dan 2:44-45 The Eternal Reign of Christ the fifth Kingdom, without end It represents the Kingdom of God, the Kingdom of the Son of Man, and Kingdom of His saints (Dan 4:3, 34; 7:13-14, 18, 27; Matt 3:2; Luke 1:33; John 18:36).  This would arise in the days of the fourth kingdom.  This is the kingdom of Christ.

When one considers just this partial list of the Kingdoms in prophecy, it is amazing that God gave us this panoramic view of His divine plan that stretches over hundreds of years.  Truly, it would mean to us what it meant to Isaiah when God gave him this command:

8 And now, go, write it before them on a tablet and inscribe it in a book, that it may be for the time to come as a witness forever. Isaiah 30:8 (ESV)

And so it is, a witness forever!  It is a witness to the fact that the Bible is the Word of God.  It is a witness that fulfilled prophecy is a powerful proof--proof that we have the Word of God at our own precious disposal this very day!


ENDNOTES:
  1. Thomson, CH, "Damascus," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 780.
  2. Porter, H, "Ashdod" in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 267.
  3. Clay, AT, "Sennacherib," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 2720.
  4. Thomson, JEH, "Alexander the Great" in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 92.
  5. Thomson, JEH, ibid., p 92.
  6. Ewing, W, "Edom" in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 898.
  7. Porter, H, "Ammon," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 118.
  8. Porter, H. "Moab," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 2071.
  9. Masterman, EWG, "Jerusalem," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, pp 1616, 1619.
  10. Weir, TH, "Israel, Kingdom of," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 1530.
  11. Clay, AT. "Babylonia," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 367.
  12. Wilson, RD, "Nebuchadnezzar," in Orr, J (General Editor) The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, WB Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapid, MI, © 1956, p 2128.
  13. Thomson, CH. "Damascus" ibid.

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