Eichman has made a thorough search for the evidences of evolution, that is, those evidences found in high-school and college textbooks that purportedly support evolution.  From these he was able to assemble the following list:
  1. Geographical distribution of plants and animals.
  2. Fossils.
  3. Comparative anatomy.
  4. Comparative physiology and biochemistry.
  5. Comparative embryology.
  6. Vestigial structures.
  7. The evidence from similarities.1
Geographical distribution of plants and animals refers to the particular plants and animals of a given region.  Evolution concludes that environment is a major factor in molding modern species through natural selection; that organisms are adapted to a particular geographic region; and that environmental factors limit the movement of species.

Fossils are very important for the theory of evolution.  Darwin understood that his theory would stand or fall based upon the fossil record, and that the fossil record did not fully support his theory when he published it.  Proponents of evolution have concluded that the fossil record provides evidence for evolutionary change.  In summary concerning fossils, the following is clear:
  1. Organisms have changed over time.  These changes are consistent with microevolution, but macroevolution is very difficult, if not impossible, to demonstrate.
  2. Most organisms that have lived on earth are extinct.
  3. "Missing links" that would confirm major steps in the evolutionary tree have not been found.
  4. The "Cambrian explosion" shows great diversity and complexity in the invertebrate phyla, which does not support Darwinian evolution.
  5. The major animal phyla appear in the fossil record suddenly, and without any previous forms.
  6. The fossil record does not reveal the finely grated chain of intermediate forms that Darwin hoped would be discovered.2
Comparative anatomy identifies similarities and differences among the structures of different animals.  The structure of the forearm is a classic example of this.  The term homology is applied to this, and it is used as strong supporting evidence for the theory of evolution.

Comparative physiology and biochemistry also use the homology argument.  For example, the enzyme trypsin, as well as hemoglobin, thyroid hormone and insulin are found in many animal groups.  However, cytochrome C is not universally found in animal groups, and this exception would not be expected if evolution is a fact.

Comparative embryology was once used extensively as an argument for evolution.  However, most responsible biologists have rejected this line of reasoning.  In spite of this, Eichman notes that this argument is still presented in some biology textbooks as an evidence for evolution.

Vestigial structures is also one of those arguments that responsible biologists have rejected.  It is rather surprising now to think that the appendix and the pineal gland in humans were once considered to be vestigial structures.

The overriding evidence of homology found in anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry appear to be the strongest evidences for evolution.  Evolutionists think this information confirms decent from a common ancestor.  Certainly this is one possibility, but the other obvious possibility is that such design demands a Designer.  Until macroevolution, that is, the emergence from one species of a totally new species with different chromosomes than the first species, is clearly demonstrated in the laboratory and in the fossil record, the theory of evolution cannot be honestly taught as a fact.  Until such evidence is presented, the hypothesis of a Designer should be given equal credibility and attention.  In addition, in the rush to demonstrate homologies, we must not overlook the considerable differences there are in all life forms.  Those differences must be explained by the evolutionists if they wish to appear credible on the homologies.

  1. Eichman, Phillip. Understanding Evolution: A Christian Perspective.  Does God Exist?, South Bend, IN, © 1984, 1998 by Phillip Eichman, pp 26-35.
  2. Eichman, ibid., pp 61-62.