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Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274 AD) is well-known for his presentation of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God.  However, both Plato (c. 427-347 BC) and Aristotle (c. 384-322 BC) offered first cause arguments long before Aquinas.  It appears that Aquinas' study of Aristotle was what stirred him to develop his own first cause argument for the existence of God.1

This argument is based on the universal observation that "Nothing comes from nothing."  The basic thought is that since the universe exists, there had to be some cause to bring it into existence and to sustain it through the ages.  Aquinas argued that this first cause is God, and identified him as the unmoved mover, the prime mover, the uncaused first cause, and the necessary being.2

Indeed, the existence of the cosmos is exceedingly strong evidence for a Creator.  There had to be an unmoved mover.  There had to be an uncaused first cause.  There had to be a necessary being.  Our universe and most especially man himself are contingent, i.e., they are capable of NOT being.  It took a necessary being to bring the universe into existence.

The pressing nature of this argument has become much more so after the findings that led to the Big Bang Theory.  Prior to this time atheists firmly held to the idea that matter was eternal, and there was no objective evidence concerning the heavenly bodies to convince them otherwise.  However, the data behind the Big Bang Theory destroyed their static eternal universe argument entirely.  Beyond the speculation involved in how the Big Bang occurred, there is a core finding that the universe indeed had a beginning called a "singularity."  Thus, the universe must have been created, for it is not eternal, and is not a static or closed system.

Nothing comes from nothing.  The universe had a beginning, and that singularity was God.

The Bible states this position very clearly in Genesis 1:1; Psalms 19:1-4; and Romans 1:18-20.  Thousands of years before the Big Bang theory, there were these words:  "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth." (Gen 1:1).  It was true when it was written, and it is still true today.

ENDNOTES:
  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmological_argument
  2. Baxter BB. I Believe Because: A Study of the Evidence Supporting Christian Faith. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI, © 1971, pp 53-57.



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